marriage, is a reality, henceforth irrevocable, and gives rise to a covenant guaranteed by God's fidelity. "It is usual to distinguish a twofold hierarchy in the Church, that of order and that of jurisdiction, corresponding to the twofold means of sanctification, grace, which comes to us principally through the sacraments, and good works, which are the fruit of grace." "Christ's Faithful. Although some of them had remained pagan, another part of them, not the least, had become Christian. 289 290 In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, 291 elevated the see of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome". Smith, Janet (1991) "Humanae Vitae a Generation Later, Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, Stewart, Cynthia (2008) The Catholic Church: A Brief Popular History 337 pages Tausch, Arno, Global Catholicism in the Age of Mass Migration and the Rise of Populism: Comparative Analyses, Based.